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Oversight of Active Surface Coal Mining

State and Tribal Oversight

SMCRA created a limited initial regulatory program directly administered and enforced by OSMRE. However, Congress intended that this program be only a temporary measure until States adopted regulatory programs consistent with the Act. Section 101 of SMCRA specifies that the primary governmental responsibility for regulating surface mining and reclamation operations should rest with the States.

To achieve primary regulatory responsibility, often referred to as primacy, a State must develop and obtain Secretarial approval of a program that meets the requirements of the Act and that is no less effective than the federal regulations in achieving the requirements of the Act. The State also must demonstrate that it has the administrative, financial, and legal capabilities to carry out the provisions of the Act. Upon approval, the State becomes the primary regulatory authority for coal mining and coal exploration within its borders. Currently, 24 States have primacy.

The SMCRA Amendments Act of 2006 authorized Indian Tribes to apply for and obtain primacy for the regulation, in whole or in part, of surface coal mining and reclamation operations on reservation land under the jurisdiction of the Tribe. However, at present, no Tribe has achieved primacy.

OSMRE assumes an oversight role after a State or Tribe achieves primacy.

Frequently Asked Questions

OSMRE defines "oversight" as the "process of evaluating and assisting states [and tribes] in the administration, implementation, and maintenance of approved programs. In collaboration with each state/tribe, OSMRE develops a Performance Agreement/Evaluation Plan tailored to the unique conditions of each state/tribe program. Performance Agreements/Evaluation Plans between OSMRE and the states establish how oversight is conducted during each evaluation year.

Oversight is the process of evaluating and assisting States and Tribes in the administration, implementation, enforcement, and maintenance of their approved regulatory programs. That role includes both programmatic evaluations and inspections of individual mine sites. Two primary objectives of oversight of State and Tribal programs are to identify potential problems and their root cause and to assist States and Tribes in resolving any problems or other issues that are identified.

OSMRE Directive AML-22 establishes policies and procedures for evaluation of State and tribal abandoned mine land reclamation programs.

OSMRE Directive REG-8 establishes policies and procedures for oversight evaluations of State and Tribal regulatory programs. Each year, OSMRE develops a performance agreement and evaluation plan to guide oversight activities within the State or Tribe for that year. That process includes solicitation and consideration of public input. OSMRE collaborates with the State or Tribe to the extent possible in developing the evaluation plan. OSMRE field and regional offices maintain an evaluation file and prepare an annual evaluation report for each State and Tribe.

When OSMRE’s oversight activities identify an issue that could result in a failure by the State or Tribe to effectively implement, administer, enforce, or maintain any portion of its regulatory program, the OSMRE field or regional office will work with the State or Tribe to develop an action plan to resolve the problem before it escalates into a situation that could result in substitution of federal enforcement or withdrawal of program approval under 30 CFR 733.12.

Selected oversight documents are available for review on OSMRE's Reg-8 and AML-22 Oversight Documents Database (ODocs). This an electronic database has built-in search capability to locate documents, such as Annual Reports, Topic Specific Reports, State Inspectable Units List, etc.

You can access ODocs at

To begin a search, you must select a State or Tribe and an evaluation year. Please refer to the ODocs website for a description of the types of documents that may be available and to determine which documents are available for a particular State or Tribe.

OSMRE conducts oversight on an evaluation year basis which runs from July 1 through June 30. We are soliciting comments from citizens, environmental groups, industry and other interested parties regarding our Proposed Oversight Performance Agreements, which can be found in the Reg-8 Oversight Database (ODocs)

Public comment will begin on May 15, or as soon as a draft is available. The Public will be given 15 days to comment upon posting of the draft by email or in writing, to your state or tribal contact listed on the map here. As a part of that process, we welcome comments and suggestions from interested parties on oversight and/or potential oversight evaluation topics, including the opportunity for discussions with our office.

The final work plans will be completed by June 30 and will be available by July 14, 2022 in ODocs. You may also request a hard copy of the document from your state or tribal contact listed on the map here.

Thank you for your participation in this important process. 


  • Alabama
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  • Crow Tribe
  • Colorado
  • Hopi Tribe
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  • Indiana
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  • Kansas
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  • Louisiana
  • Maryland
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  • Navajo Nation
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  • Washington 
  • West Virginia